FarOut Fields Brittanys

Brittany Information

Brittany Breed Standard

American Brittany Club Code of Ethics

Responsible Breeding

Glossary Of Dog Show Lingo

Other Brittany Resources

Brittany Breed Guide

Vet Depot Brittany Guide


The Brittany is a medium-sized, strong, and agile dog with a flat or wavy coat. The coat is short and dense, never curly, and not silky or wiry. There may be some fringe on the ears. These dogs are orange and white, or liver and white, and come in roan or clear patterns. Some ticking may be present. Brittanys are leggy dogs with dark-colored eyes and short, triangular ears. They measure 17.5 to 20.5 inches tall at the shoulder and weigh 30 to 45 pounds. These dogs live 12 years or more with proper care.

Brittanys have very strong hunting instincts. They must be kept on a leash or in a securely fenced yard to keep them from chasing after every squirrel or other animal they see.

Brittanys are energetic, intelligent, and quick animals. They need at least an hour of physical activity every day or they will become unhappy and destructive. When given lots of love and attention, these are friendly and happy dogs. They do well in most homes, provided they are well cared for and loved.

The Brittany breed has claimed more Dual Championships than all other sporting breeds combined. This is proof of their superior talents.

Breed Standard for the Brittany

General Appearance

A compact, closely knit dog of medium size, a leggy dog having the appearance, as well as the agility, of a great ground coverer. Strong, vigorous, energetic and quick of movement. Ruggedness, without clumsiness, is a characteristic of the breed. He can be tailess or has a tail docked to approximately four inches.

Size, Proportion, Substance

17 1/2 to 20 1/2 inches, measured from the ground to the highest point of the shoulders. Any Brittany measuring under 17 1/2 inches or over 20 1/2 inches shall be disqualified from dog show competition.

Weight: Should weigh between 30 and 40 pounds.

Proportion: So leggy is he that his height at the shoulders is the same as the length of his body.

Body Length:

Approximately the same as the height when measured at the shoulders. Body length is measured from the point of the forechest to the rear of the rump. A long body should be heavily penalized.

Substance: Not too light in bone, yet never heavy-boned and cumbersome.

Expression: Alert and eager, but with the soft expression of a bird dog.


Well set in head. Well protected from briars by a heavy, expressive eyebrow. A prominent, full or pop eye should be heavily penalized. It is a serious fault in a dog that must face briars. Skull well chiseled under the eyes, so that the lower lid is not pulled back to form a pocket or haw that would catch seeds, dirt and weed dust. Preference should be for the darker colored eyes, though lighter shades of amber should not be penalized. Light and mean-looking eyes should be heavily penalized.


Set high, above the level of the eyes. Short and triangular, rather than pendulous, reaching about half the length of the muzzle. Should lie flat and close to the head, with the tip rounded very slightly. Ears well covered with dense, but relatively short hair, and with little fringe.


Medium length, rounded, very slightly wedge-shaped, but evenly made. Width, not quite as wide as the length and never so broad as to appear coarse, or so narrow as to appear racy. Well defined but gently sloping stop. Median line rather indistinct. The occiput only apparent to the touch. Lateral walls well rounded. The Brittany should never be "apple-headed" and he should never have an indented stop.


Medium length, about two-thirds the length of the skull, measuring the muzzle from the tip to the stop, and the skull from the occiput to the stop. Muzzle should taper gradually in both horizontal and vertical dimensions as it approaches the nostrils. Neither a Roman nose nor a dish-face is desirable. Never broad, heavy or snipy.


Nostrils well open to permit deep breathing of air and adequate scenting. Tight nostrils should be penalized. Never shiny. Color: fawn, tan, shades of brown or deep pink. A black nose is a disqualification. A two-tone or butterfly nose should be penalized.


Tight, the upper lip overlapping the lower jaw just to cover the lower lip. Lips dry, so that feathers will not stick. Drooling to be heavily penalized. Flews to be penalized.

Bite: A true scissors bite. Overshot or undershot jaw to be heavily penalized.

Neck, Topline, Body

Medium length. Free from throatiness, though not a serious fault unless accompanied by dewlaps, strong without giving the impression of being over-muscled. Well set into sloping shoulders. Never concave or ewe-necked.

Topline: Slight slope from the highest point of the shoulders to the root of the tail.


Deep, reaching the level of the elbow. Neither so wide nor so rounded as to disturb the placement of the shoulders and elbows. Ribs well sprung. Adequate heart room provided by depth as well as width. Narrow or slab-sided chests area fault.

Back: Short and straight. Never hollow, saddle, sway or roach backed. Slight drop from the hips to the root of the tail.


Rounded. Fairly full. Not extremely tucked up, or flabby and falling. Loins short and strong. Distance from last rib to upper thigh short, about three to four fingers widths. Narrow and weak loins are a fault. In motion, the loin should not sway sideways, giving a zig-zag motion to the back, wasting energy.


Tailless to approximately four inches, natural or docked. The tail not to be so long as to affect the over-all balance of the dog. Set on high, actually an extension of the spine at about the same level. Any tail substantially more than four inches shall be severely penalized.


Shoulder blades should not protrude too much, not too wide apart, with perhaps two thumbs' width between. Sloping and muscular. Blade and upper arm should form nearly a ninety degree angle. Straight shoulders are a fault. At the shoulders the Brittany is slightly higher than at the rump.

Front Legs:

Viewed from the front, perpendicular, but not set too wide. Elbows and feet turning neither in nor out. Pasterns slightly sloped. Down in pasterns is a serious fault. Leg bones clean, graceful, but not too fine. Extremely heavy bone is as much a fault as spindly legs. One must look for substance and suppleness. Height at elbows should approximately equal distance from elbow to withers.


Should be strong, proportionately smaller than the spaniels', with close fitting, well arched toes and thick pads. The Brittany is "not up on his toes." Toes not heavily feathered. Flat feet, splayed feet, paper feet, etc., are to be heavily penalized. An ideal foot is halfway between the hare and the cat foot. Dewclaws may be removed.


Broad strong and muscular, with powerful thighs and well bent stifles, giving the angulation necessary for powerful drive.

Hind Legs: Stifles well bent. The stifle should not be so angulated as to place the hock joint far out.

Feet: Same as front feet.


Dense, flat or wavy, never curly. Texture neither wiry nor silky. Ears should carry little fringe. The front and hind legs should have some feathering, but too little is definitely preferable to too much. Dogs with long or profuse feathering or furnishings shall be so severely penalized as to effectively eliminate them from competition.


Fine and fairly loose. A loose skin rolls with briars and sticks, thus diminishing punctures or tearing. A skin so loose as to form pouches is undesirable.


Orange and white or liver and white in either clear or roan patterns. Some ticking is desirable. The orange or liver is found in the standard parti-color or piebald patterns. Washed out colors are not desirable. Tri-colors are allowed but not preferred. A tri-color is a liver and white dog with classic orange markings on eyebrows, muzzle and cheeks, inside the ears and under the tail, freckles on the lower legs are orange. Anything exceeding the limits of these marking shall be severely penalized. Black is a disqualification.


When at a trot the Brittany's hind foot should step into or beyond the print left by the front foot. Clean movement, coming and going, is very important, but most important is side gait, which is smooth, efficient and ground covering.

Temperament: A happy, alert dog, neither mean nor shy.


Any Brittany measuring under 17 1/2 inches or over 20 1/2 inches. Black in the coat. A black nose.

The above Standard was approved by the AKC on April 9, 1990 and went into effect May 29, 1990.

About Buying a Dog

Thinking about buying a dog?

So you've decided to purchase a dog. Owning a dog can be the beginning of years of happiness as the special bond between humans and canines exceeds even the greatest of expectations. However, to ensure the best relationship with your dog, you must be prepared for some important responsibilities. Keep the following questions in mind as we go along.

  1. Have I found the right breed to fit into my lifestyle and home?
  2. Will you have enough time to spend training, grooming and exercising a dog?
  3. Am I willing to spend the resources to ensure the best future for a dog?
The Breed For You

Is there a breed you have had your eye on, or are you confused about how to select a dog? In either case, you should do some homework to make sure that you select the right dog for you and your family. The bonus of selecting a purebred dog is their predictability in size, coat, care requirements and temperament. Knowing what your cute puppy will look like and the kind of care he will need as an adult is a key in selecting the breed for you.

You and Your Dog

Too frequently, common sense goes out the window when it comes to buying a puppy. This seems to be even truer when the purchase is by a family with children. Buying a dog is like buying anything else; the more you know before you buy, the better off you will be. This advice applies to all aspects of buying your dog, from selecting the breed to deciding where to obtain the puppy. We strongly recommend that you spend enough time investigating before buying. Remember, dogs are for life.

The AKC's Complete Dog Book can help you begin your research with its pictures and descriptions of each breed recognized by the AKC. Your initial research will help you narrow the field when it comes to selecting the breed for you and your lifestyle. Remember to consider your dog's lifestyle, too. And for extended research, consult the resources at your local library.

While investigating, always be honest with yourself. The Bearded Collie you fell in love with because of his lush coat is indeed beautiful, but are you going to be able to brush this coat every day as it requires? Maybe a short coated dog better suits your busy lifestyle. Think about the size of your house or your apartment. Will that Golden Retriever be happy in your studio apartment? The Golden Retriever is a larger sporting dog who requires a lot of exercise. Do you have a fenced yard so he can go out safely? If not, can you afford to install a fence? These are crucial questions regarding the safety of your dog and being a responsible neighbor. Always remember, it is okay to change your mind about which breed you want or if you want the responsibility of owning a dog at all. Owning a dog is a big responsibility! Talk to breeders. Ask them lots of questions; we all know there are no stupid questions. A responsible breeder will eagerly answer your questions and share his or her experience and knowledge with you. Where can you find breeders and see dogs? At dog shows (conformation events). Also contact AKC clubs in your area for their recommendations.

Selecting A Breeder

Buy your puppy from a responsible and well-respected breeder. This cannot be stressed enough. Responsible breeders are concerned with the betterment of the breed. For example, they work on breeding healthier dogs with the appropriate temperament for their breed. Your AKC breeder referral contact will direct you to a breeder who is concerned with the future of the puppy. Once you select a breeder, screen the breeder. Ask to see at least one of the parents (the dam or the sire) of your puppy. See how the dogs in your breeder’s home interact with your breeder. Are they friendly and outgoing or do they shy away? The responsible breeder will be screening you, too, looking for the best home for each puppy.

How Much Does A Puppy Cost?

This is not the time to hunt for a bargain. Your new puppy will be a member of your family for his lifetime, so you'll want to make a wise investment.

Can You Afford A Puppy?

The purchase price of your puppy is not the only cost you have to consider. Be aware that the puppy you bring home will need proper care: food, health care, (a dog needs annual shots). Your puppy will also need little things like a collar with identification, a bowl, and a leash. Evaluate your budget; ask yourself if you really can afford a dog. Dog Ownership = Responsibility.

Being a responsible owner means considering your dog's lifelong health care needs, whether for preventive care or for unexpected accidents, injuries and illnesses that could happen at any time, however well you look after your dog. It is sensible to consider planning for these.

As a special registration benefit, the AKC has arranged a Complimentary 60-Day Trial AKC Pet Healthcare Plan* for newly registered dogs. This benefit is also available to dogs whose ownership has been transferred, if the trial plan was not activated by a prior owner. Details about this special complimentary benefit will be sent to you shortly after registration or transfer. Visit www.akcphp.com to find out more.

* Administered by PetPartners, Inc. Underwritten by Markel Insurance Company, 4600 Cox Road, Glen Allen, VA 23060, rated A "Excellent" by A.M. Best Company. Contact Pet Partners, Inc. for terms and conditions. Eligibility restrictions apply. Available to US residents excluding New York. Must be activated within 28 days of AKC Registration or Transfer Certificate Issued date.

Caring for your dog

All dogs must be cared for daily. This means proper diet, exercise, grooming and veterinary attention. There are many excellent guides on all facets of dog care. AKC’s own books, The Complete Dog Book and AKC Dog Care and Training Book, contain information on proper dog care. We recommend you have these or some other authoritative reference source available. Do not attempt to be your own veterinarian! All dogs should be regularly examined by a veterinarian and inoculated against the major infectious canine diseases. Pet health insurance offers options for coverage toward these essential items, as well as toward preventative costs.

Your dog and your neighbors

All dog owners must be aware of their responsibilities to their neighbors, both those who live in the area immediately around their residence and their neighbors in the broader sense of the community as a whole. Dogs, for all the pleasure they are, can be a nuisance to your neighbors if not trained. Remember, excessive barking can be annoying. And, always keep your dog on a leash or inside a fenced yard when exercising. Remember to pick up after your dog. Forestall problems for yourself and your dog and all dog lovers by being a good neighbor.

Obedience training for everyone

One way to make your dog a good neighbor is through obedience training. A poorly behaved dog is a problem for everyone. Nothing is more frustrating than attempting to corral a dog that will not "come" when you call. A well trained dog is not only a pleasure to own, he is a goodwill ambassador for the entire canine community. A well-behaved dog is the result of the dog's owner being willing to work with the dog regularly in a systematic manner. Obedience classes are available in most communities. Time spent training your dog is time well spent.

The AKC’s Mission:

The American Kennel Club is dedicated to upholding the integrity of its Registry, promoting the sport of purebred dogs and breeding for type and function. Founded in 1884, the AKC and its affiliated organizations advocate for the purebred dog as a family companion, advance canine health and well-being, work to protect the rights of all dog owners and promote responsible dog ownership.



An obstacle race for dogs. Dogs and handlers complete course made up of jumps, A-frames, dog walks, weave pole, tunnels and other apparatus at a controlled pace. Speed and accuracy are important in developing the skills required for agility.

All-Breed Club

An organized group of dog fanciers, recognized by the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) and/or American Kennel Club (AKC) to hold all-breed dog shows and performance events within their geographic boundaries. New clubs are considered "Sanctioned" which means that although they are officially recognized, they are not yet authorized to hold pointed shows. "Licensed" clubs have successfully completed a series of pre-requisite qualifying events, and are now authorized to conduct official all-breed events which award points. "Member" clubs are licensed clubs who have opted to have a representative regularly attend and represent their interests as a voting member club of the CKC and/or AKC. An important requisite mission that all clubs must perform is their duty to educate the general public on responsible dog ownership, breeding practices, and the multi-faceted world of purebred dogs.

All-Breed Show

An event where dogs are judged as to how closely each CONFORMS (hence the term "conformation") to it's own breed's written standard of perfection. Often shows are accompanied by Obedience Trials, Junior Showmanship Competition, and some non-regular class events, such as sweepstakes and futurities or Canine Good Citizen tests. Exhibitors are usually happy to talk to you about their breed, their breeding program, etc. *after* they have finished showing. Please do not touch or feed the dogs without first receiving the owner's direct permission.

American Kennel Club

Organized in the late 1800's, the AKC is a body of licensed clubs whose stated mission is to:
  • Maintain a registry for purebred dogs and preserve its integrity. Sanction dog events that promote interest in, and sustain the process of, breeding for type and function of purebred dogs.
The AKC's stated objective is to advance the study, breeding, exhibiting, running and maintenance of purebred dogs. AKC states its' core values as:
"The human/animal bond, which is perpetuated and supported by purpose-bred dogs for companionship, sport, work, service, etc., is valuable. Dogs bring joy and people who keep dogs as pets feel safer and live longer. All dogs are wonderful, but purpose bred or purebred dogs are more predictable in many important ways than random- bred dogs and therefore make better pets. Pet ownership is more widespread in the US today than in any other country of the world, at any time in history. More than 50% of all households have pets; 36% keep dogs, about a third of which are recognizable breeds. Breeding for type and function to create, preserve and improve breeds ties modern urban populations with the 12,000 year tradition of animal husbandry, now vanishing from the rest of our culture. In the last 100 years, this country, along with the rest of the Western world, has undergone what many historians call the most dramatic transformation in human history. It is the shift from rural, agricultural society to an urban technological one. When AKC was created, more than half of all Americans lived on farms. Even at the turn of the century, 85% of all jobs were agriculturally based. Today, less than one in fifty Americans lives on a farm but more than 50% of households maintains positive contact with animals by keeping pets. Very few people have hands-on experience in animal husbandry anymore-- and that make AKC's constituents unique subject matter experts in an area that touches and matters to half of all households. AKC breeders are the experts, the preservationist, the ones who tie society to its past and support society's present need to maintain the human/animal bond."


A number printed on paper which an exhibitor wears to indicate the entered dog's (or Junior's) reference number in the judge's book and catalog. This number is the only identification that the judge is allowed access to before and during the competition.


Items used in Obedience Trial competition which are utilized in exercises testing retrieval on command or scent discrimination. These can be wooden, leather or metal dumbbells.


When used as a verb, as "to bait the dog" or "to freebait," this refers to using an item of food or toy to gain the dogs' attention; showing expression and animation to the judge. When used as a noun, it refers to items of food (usually cooked liver, cheese, or other treat) used to bait the dog to show expression and animation.

Benched Show

An all-breed show specifically designed for public education and enjoyment, wherein all dogs are required to stay in an assigned "benching area" for the duration of the show, (except when being exercised, groomed, or exhibited) in order that the public may easily view the exhibits up close and talk to the breeders, owners, and handlers. There are very few benched shows left in the USA - the ones that readily come to mind are Westminster Kennel Club in New York City, International Kennel Club in Chicago, and Golden Gate in San Francisco. These are very large, heavily attended shows by the public. Excellent for the public, but can be exhausting for the exhibitors.

Best In Show (BIS)

A coveted award given to the ONE dog who, at the end of an all-breed dog show, has successfully defeated ALL other dogs of all breeds entered that day - by being judged to be the dog who - on that day, is considered to be the most closely conforming to it's own breed's written standard of excellence. The rosette given for a BIS win is red, white and blue.

Best Junior Handler (BJH)

The award given to the ONE Junior Handler at an all-breed or specialty show, who is judged to have exhibited the highest degree of skill in presenting their dog as effectively and skillfully as possible, by way of defeating the balance of other junior handling entrants. The rosette given for a BJH win is pink and green.

Best of Winners (BOW)

A competition between the Winners Dog and the Winners Bitch, held during the Best of Breed Competition, whereby the two dogs are judged as to which one is considered to be most closely conformed to its written breed standard. The winner of BOW receives the highest number of points given to that breed's WD or WB that day. For instance, if it was only two points in Dogs that day, and 4 points in Bitches, and the Dog won Best of Winners, he, too would be awarded 4 points.


A female dog. NOT a dirty word. Get used to it.


Two dogs of the same breed and exact same ownership being shown together as a pair in order to display the breeder's consistency in their breeding program. Dogs selected to be shown in a brace should display the same attributes, virtues, style and type. Brace competition is a non-regular competition and no points are awarded.

Bred By

A competitive class in conformation, the Bred by Exhibitor class is a breeder's showcase of the specimens s/he is most proud of - and those that they wish to represent the best of their kennel. Exhibits must be shown by the actual breeder of record - not a handler. AKC has recently implemented a program to award dogs who finish their championships entirely from the BBE class. A medallion is given to the breeder as special recognition.


Used as a verb, to breed is to cause the reproduction of two animals. As a noun, the term "Breed" is used to describe a particular sub-species of animals of similar type and heritage, who have been carefully and intentionally bred to meet certain functional, temperamental, and physical characteristics. "Breed competition" or "in the breed ring" are also common references to competiting in the conformation classes at a dog show.

Breed Standard

A written standard of excellence describing the functional, temperamental, and physical attributes which the dedicated students and caretakers of the breed - via their national parent organization, have agreed upon as the official description of perfection for their particular breed.

Campaign (Conformation)

To enter and compete in a large number of shows with a Champion of Record (a "Special") - in order to obtain national rankings by way of defeating the greatest number of other dogs. Most commonly done by using the services of a Professional Handler. Requires a substantial investment and an excellent dog and handler.

Campaign (Obedience)

To enter and compete in a large number of obedience trials at the Open or Utility level. Points are accumulated with the scores achieved. Top dogs are recognized by the CKC and/or the AKC for placements in both the breed and group. An overall "Top 10" list is accumulated of the dogs and handlers that achieve the highest point totals in their respective countries during a calendar year.

Canine Good Citizen

AKC's temperament certification program aimed mostly towards the general public as an encouragement to buy/breed only temperamentally sound dogs, and to do at least a *little* obedience training, so that their dogs will be welcome, safe, and happy in public situations. Dogs and their handlers are put through a series of simple exercises such as walking on lead through a crowd of strangers, sitting on command, standing for examination, response to being left alone for a moment, etc. Successful participants are given a certificate of achievement. Although the "CGC" is NOT an official AKC title, many people are proud to list this among their dogs accomplishments, as it represents that the dog is of stable temperament in public.


The Canadian Kennel Club is devoted to encouraging, guiding and advancing the interests of purebred dogs and their responsible owners and breeders in Canada. It promotes the knowledge and understanding of the benefits which dogs can bring to Canada and the means by which these benefits can most effectively be enjoyed. The CKC cooperates with governments at all levels in Canada in the development of legislation which will effectively control the activities of irresponsible dog owners and breeders without unduly restricting responsible owners and breeders. The C.K.C maintains a system of registration of purebred dogs that satisfies the requirements of the Animal Pedigree Act, Agriculture Canada and the Club members. It maintains a system whereby clubs and associations wishing to do so may hold dogs shows, obedience trials, field trials and other trials, tests and activities for purebred dogs under the auspices of and in accordance with the rules, regulations, standards, policies and procedures established by the Club. It encourages and assists persons and organizations engaged in these activities and co-operates with other associations and clubs engaged in furthering the interests of purebred animals.


A document sold at shows which lists each entered dog's entry number, class entered, registered name and number, breeder, owner, sire, dam, and date of birth. Excellent tool for following along with the competition and looking for patterns in breeding that you prefer, as well as breeders and exhibitors to contact. If the show also has obedience classes the catalogue will list each dog by class and entry numbers. It will also list the same information about the handler and dog as for the conformation classes.


In AKC competition, a Champion of Record ("CH") title is given to a dog or bitch who has won a total of 15 points at licensed AKC shows. At least 6 of these points must have come from "Major" wins (see "Points") under different judges. A Champion of Record may then enter and compete in the Best of Breed competition, and the "CH" becomes an official prefix to the dog's registered name. In CKC competition, a Champion of Record ("CH") title is given to a dog or bitch earning 10 points at licensed CKC shows under at least 3 different judges. As with the AKC, a Champion of Record may then enter and compete in the Best of Breed competition, and the "CH" becomes an official prefix to the dog's registered name. Champions are often referred to as "specials" - usually when they are being actively campaigned. Champions of Record also used to be commonly referred to as "bench champions" referring to the formerly common practice of holding benched shows.


As a noun, a "choke" is a metal, nylon, or leather collar consisting of a straight piece of the material, usually joined by looping it through one of two rings on each end. This is the most common collar worn by dogs in the breed ring. Worn properly, with the pull loop coming off the top of the head, this does NOT actually choke the dog, but rather gives a quick correction to get the dog's attention. It immediately releases. Kind of a quick "Hello?!" or "Hey, knock it off!" signal from the handler to the dog.


Although there ARE actual instructional classes available to learn to handle dogs in many performance events, the most common use of the term "Classes" is when referring to the different class divisions which are available to show your dog in when entered at a dog show. In conformation, the "class dogs" (those who have not finished their championships) are divided first by sex (males go in first), then further divided by age group and experience level.
Regular Conformatoin Classes are:
  • Junior Puppy 6 months to under 9 months ("6 to 9")
  • Senior Puppy 9 months to under 12 months ("9 to 12")
  • 12 months to under 18 months ("12 to 18") (Specialties only)
  • Novice (for unpointed dogs)
  • Bred By Exhibitor ("Bred-By" - shown by the dog's breeder)
  • Canadian Bred ("CanBred" - bred & whelped in Canada) or AmBred bred amd whelped in the US
  • Open (open to all purebred dogs at least 6 mos old, but usually containing fully mature dogs)
The first place winners of each of these classes in each sex compete for Winners Dog or Winners Bitch. These two remaining dogs are the only dogs of that breed who, at that show, receive points towards their championships. These two dogs also compete in the Specials Only class for Best of Breed that day.

In obedience competition, the following classes exist:
  • Novice A - dogs and handlers that are trying to obtain a CD for the first time
  • Novice B - dogs and handlers that are trying to obtain a CD that have an OTCH on a dog or are professional trainers
  • Open A - dogs and handlers that are trying to obtain a CDX for the first time
  • Open B - dogs and handlers that have obtained a CDX or are professional trainers.
  • Utility (Canadian) - those trying to obtain the UD and OTCH designation
  • Utility A (American) - those trying to obtain the UD title for the first time
  • Utility B (American) - those trying to obtain an OTCH in the US
In obedience competition, dogs and handlers compete for "LEGS" which are qualifying scores of 170 or more out of a possible 200. To earn a title, a dog and handler must get 3 "LEGS" under at least 2 different judges.

Closing Date

The last date by which entries must be received by the show superintendent or secretary, in order for an entry to be valid and included in the show's competition. Entries usually close 3-4 weeks prior to the show date in order to allow the club to arrange the judging schedule and prepare and print the catalogs etc. Closing dates are always listed clearly in the premium lists, as well as in the CKC's "Dogs in Canada" magazine for Canadian Shows or for American shows, the AKC's Gazette


How well a specific dog's structure, type and temperament conform to it's breed's written standard of excellence.
Conformation competition is also commonly referred to as "breed competition."
The term "dog confirmation," on the other hand, is reserved for dogs who confirm their faith by regularly attending Catholic Mass.


A containment unit used to safely transport and house a dog during rest periods. Dogs feel very safe and secure in their crates, which double as their private "dens." Crates are a CRITICAL piece of safety equipment for ALL dogs travelling in cars. Crates function in much the same way as does a child's safety seat; preventing dogs from being hurled through glass windows during a collision, and taking the impact of a crash. DOGS (and people for that matter) SHOULD *NEVER* ride loose in the back of a truck. If you wouldn't allow your three year old barefoot human child to stand on a hot or wet and slippery truckbed floor with no protection from the elements or from the effects of a sudden stop, bump, turn, or collision, why would you allow your dog??!! Illegal in most states and grounds for *immediate* and non-negotiable, contractually enforced return of any dog we adopt into a new family.


The lower spinal region of a dog, containing the back of the pelvis to the root of the tail.


"The" international dog show of the year, held outside of London, England each March. Visit Crufts' page.


Used specifically, a term to describe a MALE canine. Generally, a term used to describe the canine species.


A handy term used to refer to one's former spouse (you know - the one who hated dogs :) --OR-- an abbreviation for the verb to exercise (potty) one's dog - allowing them to eliminate, stretch their legs, etc. As in "I'm going to ex the dogs before bed."


A portable wire fencing unit taken to shows to allow dogs a safe, clean place to eliminate and stretch out.


In conformation competition, to finish means to have won enough points to be awarded the title of Champion of Record. In obedience a finish is a transitional movement the dog makes between the completion of a recall, and the return to the heel position.


"Flexi-Lead" is the common brand name of a retractable, spring loaded lead which allows a dog to wander and traverse at a distance from the handler without getting caught up in the lead itself. Not used in competition, but a god-send for casual walks and exercises. Available at any large pet supply store or from vendors at a show.


A canine sport for dogs. A relay race with consisting of 4 dogs that individually run over 4 hurdles placed 10 feet apart and retrieve a tennis ball after triggering a box. The dog must then return back over the jumps with the tennis ball in their mouth. Once the dog has crossed the finish line, the next dog goes. Once all 4 dogs have completed, the race is over. This sport is played with two lanes and whichever team crosses the finish line first wins the race. Dogs compete for titles as well as for rosettes for defeating other teams.

Free Bait

To use food, toy, or some other enticement to get the dog to stack properly (without physical interaction from the handler) and show alert, animated expression while standing in the breed ring being judged. The term "free" comes from "hands-free."


A non-regular competition whereby the breeder nominates a litter before it is whelped, and enters the produce from that litter in a special competition (usually held at National Specialty Shows). The idea is that these dogs represent that breeders best efforts in researching and planing their highest quality litter for that year, based upon their knowledge, understanding and confidence of the genetic potential of the proposed breeding.


The most efficient way of moving for a particular dog. Most breeds are gaited at a trot or jogging speed.

Garden (The)

Slang for the Westminster Kennel Club's high visibility, prestigious, and well respected benched show held in New York City's Madison Square Garden each February. Normally held and internationally televised on the Monday and Tuesday of the second week in February each year. The '98 show will be held during the third week in February, due to scheduling conflicts with Madision Square Garden.


The offspring of a stud dog.


To bathe, dry, comb, clip and scissors a dog to best exhibit its virtues. Very strict rules and traditions govern "correct" grooming, and significant talent and experience is required to become excellent at show-grooming the coated breeds.


Groupings of dogs by their traditional functional similarities. The AKC and CKC currently has seven groups;
  1. Sporting (dogs used for upland gamebird hunting i.e. retrievers, pointers, setters, spaniels)
  2. Hound (dogs who track by sight or scent)
  3. Working (guard, pulling and/or rescue dogs)
  4. Terrier (dogs who were bred to kill vermin)
  5. Toy (dogs who were bred strictly as small companions to people)
  6. Non-Sporting (dogs whose original job no longer exists, or who no longer are used for their original function)
  7. Herding (Dogs bred to gather and move livestock - formerly part of the Working Group)
Each recognized breed belongs to a specific Group. Each breed awards a Best of Breed (BOB) winner to represent that breed in the afternoon's Group competition, whereby the BOB contestants compete for group placement awards of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th in group. The winner of each group's first place award goes on to represent their group in the Best in Show competition at the end of the day.


The person presenting the dog in competition. Often a term used to refer to a professional handler.


An adjudicating official tasked with evaluating and comparing how well, in his/her opinion, and in comparison to the other dogs entered in the class that day, a dog conforms to its breed's written standard of excellence. Other performance events also have official judges.

Judging Schedule

A small (usually free) publication offered by the superintendent/show secretary which lists when and where each breed will be judged that day, and by whom. For a complete listing of dogs, their breeders, owners, etc, buy a complete catalog.


A young person between the ages of 10 and up to their 18th birthday, who competes with other juniors of similar age/experience levels in exhibiting their technical skills of handling dogs, ring conduct, and sportsmanship.

Junior Handling

The actual competitive classes offered for Juniors exhibiting their handling skills, which are usually offered at dog shows and matches. The AKC and CKC offer classes for two age groups, each divided by skill:
  • Novice Junior (Ages 10 up to 14, who have won less than three 1st place awards with competition)
  • Novice Senior (Ages 14 up to 18, who have won less than three 1st place awards with competition)
  • Open Junior (Ages 10 up to 14, who have won at least three 1st place awards with competition)
  • Open Senior (Ages 14 up to 18, who have won at least three 1st place awards with competition)
The first place winners of each of these four classes compete for Best Junior Handler.


A thin leather, nylon, cotton, etc. piece of material usually with a metal snap or clip connector on one end to attach to the dog's collar, and a loop on the other end for the handler to hold on to, leading the dog around the show ring. This is not called a leash - which is a thick piece of material used to take your dogs for a walk or compete in obedience.


The area of the body between the last ribcage and the beginning of the pelvis. (In human terms, this would be the waist). The lower portion of the loin is known as the "tuck-up."


"A Major" is a big win for a class dog who has defeated enough dogs that day by going Winners Dog or Winners Bitch, to earn either 3, 4, or 5 points towards its championship. The point schedule is different for each breed, sex, and region, depending upon entries. Also see "Points" definition below.


An annual specialty show hosted by the breed's national parent breed club. Usually considered that breed's most important, competitive, and prestigious event to win or place well in.

Novice A/B

Basic level Obedience classes. Dogs successfully achieving three qualifying scores ("legs") of at least 170 out of 200 points (including earning at least 50% of available points for each separate exercise) are awarded the title "Companion Dog" and are allowed to add the "CD" suffix to their registered name. Obedience classes are divided into two groups; (A and B) - "A" for exhibitors who have not yet added this title to a dog's name that they have either handled or trained, and "B" or more experienced exhibitors who have. Exercises in these classes include:
  1. Heel on Leash and Figure Eight........40 points
  2. Stand for Examination....................30 points
  3. Heel Free (off leash) ........................40 points
  4. Recall (return to handler and sit front)......30 points
  5. Long Sit (1 minute)...........................30 points
  6. Long Down (3 minutes) .....................30 points
Maximum Total Score....................200 points
In AKC competition the stand for exam is done off leash and in CKC competition the Stand for Exam is done off leash and in CKC competition the Stand for Exam is done on leash.

Novice Junior

A handling class for young people between the ages of 10 and up to their 14th birthday who have not yet won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with* competition.

Novice Senior

A handling class for young people between the ages of 14 and up to their 18th birthday who have not yet won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with* competition.


A competitive performance event whereby the dog and handler are judged on their ability to execute a predetermined set of exercises which display the dog's ability to adhere to certain commands. Dogs are scored on their tractability, style, and execution using a *very* strict scale of 0 - 200 points. Dogs achieving 3 qualifying scores ("legs") of at least 170 are awarded official AKC/CKC titles as suffixes to their registered name. The three regular AKC/CKC obedience classes - in order of degree of difficulty) are:
  • Novice (which earns the title of "Companion Dog" or "CD")
  • Open (which earns the title of "Companion Dog Excellent" or "CDX")
  • Utility (which earns the title of "Utility Dog" or "UD")
There are additional titles available for dogs competing at the highest levels, such as UDX for dogs earning 10 qualifying scores in both Open B and Utility B, and OTCH (Obedience Trial Champion). Obedience Trials can be held in conjunction with all-breed conformation shows, or as independent events. The AKC is now in the process of creating a special "juniors" obedience division to encourage kids to get involved! Yeah AKC!
In Canada, 3 UD legs earns the title of OTCH. In the US 100 points must be collected to earn the title of OTCH.


A boney section of the skull located at the back of the topskull. Also known as an Occipital Protuberance. This bone, during puberty, or if not situated properly in an adult, creates an unattractive bump (or protuberance) in the shape of the headpiece. Situated properly, it creates a slight dome to the skull.

Open A/B

Mid-level obedience classes (off leash) which earn the suffix title of Companion Dog Excellent ("CDX") when they earn three qualifying scores of at least 170 out of 200 points (including earning at least 50% of available points for each separate exercise) from three different judges. Obedience classes are divided into two groups; (A and B) - "A" for exhibitors who have not yet added this title to a dog's name that they have either handled or trained, and "B" or more experienced exhibitors who have. Exercises include:
  1. Heel Free and Figure Eight.............40 points
  2. Drop on Recall.........................30 points
  3. Retrieve on Flat.......................20 points
  4. Retrieve over High Jump................30 points
  5. Broad Jump.............................20 points
  6. Long Sit - out of site.................30 points
  7. Long Down - out of site................30 points
Maximum Total Score.......................200 points

Open Junior

A handling class for young people between the ages of 10 and up to their 14th birthday who have already won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with* competition.

Open Senior

A handling class for young people between the ages of 14 and up to their 18th birthday who have already won three first place awards in a novice handling class *with* competition.

Parent Club (aka National Breed Club)

The officially recognized national organization governing each specific breed's independent specialty clubs. Parent clubs or "National Breed Clubs" are tasked with being the official guardians of their breeds and their written standards and stud book in this country, and to protect the welfare and integrity of their respective breeds.


The area between a dog's paws and it's lower arm, which - in the front - relates to a human wrist area, and in the rear relates to a human's sole of foot. In the rear, the pasterns are topped by "hocks" which relate to a human heel / ankle bone. Often, this entire rear foot assembly in general is mistakenly referred to as the "hock." A good way to understand and visualize the components of a dogs foot / leg assembly is to sit in a chair barefooted and rest your weight on just your bent toes. Your toes and ball of foot would be the dog's "paw" or foot; your soles would be the pasterns, and your heels/ankle would be the hocks. See also Stifle and Patella.


The knee joint of a dog's rear legs which allow the dog's legs to bend and flex as they move. The patellar joint consists of bone, ligaments and muscle tissue. A frequent disorder of this joint, Patellar luxation is a looseness or hyperextension of the joining tendons which allows the kneecap to slip off of its "runners" causing pain and inability to move correctly. Luxated Patellae can be surgically corrected. LP is thought to be a genetically inheritable tendency, but can also be caused by injury.


In conformation ("breed") competition, CKC & AKC award between one and five points towards their Champion of Record title - depending on the regional point schedule and/or how many dogs defeated - to both the Winners Dog and Winners Bitch of each breed entered at a show.To receive the title of Champion in Canada a dog must earn at least 10 points, winning points from at least e judges. To receive the title of Champion in US, a dog must earn at least 15 points; at least 6 of which must come from two different judges, and be "majors." A "major" is a substantial achievement earned by defeating a large number of dogs relative to that breed. A major consists of either 3, 4, or 5 points. In obedience competition, points are awarded towards the Obedience Trial Champion title based on scores and the number of dogs defeated. 100 points earns the title of OTCH in the US. Points are also given out to qualifying scores in the Open and Utility level and accumulate within a calendar year to determine placing within the breed and within the group. While earning each title scores are given to the dog and handler. Any score over 170 points earns a qualifying "leg" towards their title. Three "legs" and the dog earns the title associated with the scores. In junior handling competition, points are garnered by the number of competitors defeated. In the most widely recognized scoring system, which AKC is in the process of beginning to track, one point is awarded for each competitor you defeat. (You do not count yourself, as you did not defeat yourself). The Best Jr. Handler receives one point for each other competitor entered and defeated that day.

Post Sternum

The "breastbone" on a dog. Located on its forechest midway between its point of shoulders, a somewhat protruding post sternum is desirable in most sporting, working, and herding breed - as it is thought to indicate a chest cavity large enough to accommodate lungs and heart expansion as they work in heavy physical activity.

Premium List

A publication created by the show superintendent or secretary which is mailed to prospective exhibitors, listing the show giving club, the date and location of the show, the judges, classes and awards ("premiums") offered, etc. Premium lists contain forms and fees for entering, and list the closing date by which entries must be received. You may request a specific premium list by contacting the show superintendent or secretary for the show you are interested in. The name of the super/sec for each individual show in Canada is listed in the CKC Dogs in Canada magazine. The names of the super/sec in the US for each individual show is listed in the AKC gazette.


The offspring of a brood bitch.


A grouping of states with similar numbers of entries, which AKC designates as a Region for calculating point schedules.

Reserve (or Reserve Winners)

See "Winners Bitch" and/or "Winners Dog" descriptions below.

Ring Steward

A judge's assistant who is tasked with coordinating the logistics of getting the exhibitors and their dogs into and out of the rings efficiently. Stewards check in the exhibitors, answer questions about ring procedures, call in the classes, prepare the ribbons and trophies for distribution, and maintain their own marked catalogs as back-up documentation for official placements. Stewards are responsible for the smooth operation of their rings, and the comfort of the judges they are assigned to assist. Some Stewards are club volunteers while others are paid for their professional services.


To exercise and condition a dog usually by walking, jogging, or biking.


A show official (usually an individual person) licensed by the CKC or AKC, and hired by the show giving club to act as the coordinating management for the show. The secretary usually generates and distributes the premium lists, receives the entries, creates the catalogs, provides the equipment and materials needed, keeps all the records and generates the reports for CKC.

Set Up

The area on the show grounds in which you establish your home-base for grooming and holding your dogs while you are not in the ring. Pray for a space close to the rings with an electrical outlet!


The movement of a dog as it is seen from the dog's side. Look for how effectively it tracks, and how appropriately it reaches with it's front legs, and drives off of it's rear.


A small grooming tool with a rectangular head on the end containing fine teeth with bent tops which is used to separate and brush out topcoat and furnishings such as hock hair.


Slang for a Champion of Record who is being actively campaigned.


A show consisting of only one breed, given by a "Specialty Club." Specialty clubs are groups of individuals (breeders, exhibitors, pet enthusiasts, etc.) who share a passion for a specific breed of dogs, and who host events specific to promoting that breed. Specialties usually draw a large entry of dogs, and wins garnered from specialties are very high visibility within the national family of that breed's fanciers.


To cause your dog to stand in a manner that best displays it's virtues. In most breeds, the dog's forelegs are stacked in alignment with their withers, and their rear pasterns are squarely aligned and presented at a 90 degree angle from the floor. There are exceptions by breed i.e. German Shepherd Dogs, etc. One may "Hand stack" their dog by manually placing each foot in it's best position, or else "Free stack" by using a hands free method of using bait, verbal commands, body language, or lead correction to get the dog to stack itself.


The officially recognized written description of an ideal specimen of a specific breed. This is the document judges are tasked to interpret when judging in the breed ring, where dogs are judged as to how well they conform to this written standard of excellence. Original breed standards are written by the national parent clubs of each individual breed, and are then adopted by the Kennel Club of the appropriate county, ie CKC/AKC.


See "Post Sternum"


See "Ring Steward" above.


The curved area on a dog's rear legs containing the thighs and patella (knee). The actual bend of stifle regulates how much flexibility the dog will have to drive off of its rear.


The skeletal junction on the skull's foreface between the back of the muzzle and the beginning of the topskull. Collies and Afghans have very little "stop" and Chihuahuas, Labrador Retrievers, and St. Bernards have a great deal of "stop."


A show official (usually a professional show managing company) licensed by the CKC/AKC, and hired by the show giving club to act as the coordinating management team for the show. The superintendent usually generates and distributes the premium lists, receives the entries, creates the catalogs, provides the equipment and materials needed, keeps all the records and generates the reports for the appropriate kennel club.


A non-regular class, usually offered at specialty shows, which are specifically designed to recognize outstanding young dogs and puppies. Winners of Best in Sweeps, Best Opposite Sex in Sweeps, and often all of the class placement winners, receive a portion of the entry fees as prizes for their placement. Sweepstakes are the only classes where money prizes are normally awarded.


Equipment (collars, leads, grooming products, combs, brushes, shears, etc) used to prepare and show a dog. Hopefully found in a "Tack Box" when not in use.


The spinal section of a dog from it's withers (top of shoulder blades) to the end of it's croup (at the tail root).

Utility A/B

Highest level of obedience classes for people seeking to earn the suffix title of Utility Dog ("UD") when they earn three qualifying scores of at least 170 out of 200 points (including earning at least 50% of available points for each separate exercise) from three different judges. Obedience classes are divided into two groups; (A and B) - "A" for exhibitors who have not yet added this title to a dog's name that they have either handled or trained, and "B" or more experienced exhibitors who have. Exercises (all off leash) include:
  1. Signal Exercise.....................40 points
  2. Scent Discrimination Article #1.....30 points *
  3. Scent Discrimination Article #2.....30 points *
  4. Directed Retrieve...................30 points
  5. Moving Stand and Examination........30 points
  6. Directed Jumping....................40 points
Maximum Total Score....................200 points
* The scent discrimination exercise is different in both Canada and in the US. In Canada, there are 3 articles, wood, metal and leather. In the US only the wood and metal are used.
In the US, there are A and B classes. Once the UD is achieved in the US, competitors continue to compete for placements to accumulate 100 points to earn their OTCH designation. In Canada, there is only the one Utility class. In Canada, 3 legs earns the title UD and OTCH.


A non-regular but competitive class for dogs at least 7 years old, designed to honor those dogs who have maintained their structural integrity, health, vigor and love of showing into their golden years. Boxes of Kleenex are mandatory at ringside...trust me.

Westminster KC

A very prestigious all-breed /all-champions limited entry benched show held in New York City's Madison Square Garden each February, The Westminster Kennel Club show is legendary. The WKC show is the 2nd oldest sporting event in the United States, younger only than the Kentucky Derby. A major social event as well, "The Garden" is an event every dog lover should attend at least once. Normally nationally televised over two nights. Also see "Garden" above.


The point at which the shoulder blades (scapulae) meet. This critical structural point and its adjoining muscles and ligaments regulate how effectively a dog is able to cover ground with the rest of its front assembly. the tightness or looseness of the shoulders can make the difference between a sloppy thrown front and a clean tracking one. The angulation that the shoulders make create the transition between the neck and spine, and contribute to how easily a dog can reach ahead of itself and how it carries it's head. The withers is also the point at which actual HEIGHT of a dog is measured with a tool called a wicket. The height of the dog needs to be determined for obedience, agility and flyball competition as it will determine the jumping height of the dog.


To give birth to a litter of puppies. A pregnant bitch is considered to be "in whelp." When she is giving birth, she is said to be "whelping."

Winners Bitch

The class (aka "unfinished" or "non-champion") bitch who has defeated all other class bitches of that breed at that show is the ONE female of that breed to be awarded points towards her championship . The first place winners from each of the bitch classes in that breed that day**, compete for Winners Bitch. **This would be the 1st place 6-9 month Puppy Bitch, the 1st place 9-12 Puppy Bitch, the 1st place 12-18 Junior Bitch, the 1st place Novice Bitch, the 1st Place Bred-by Bitch, the First place Can-Bred Bitch, and the 1st place Open Bitch. After one Winners Bitch is selected, the bitch who originally took 2nd place to her in the classes is asked to come in and compete with the remaining bitches for "Reserve Winners Bitch." The winner of the "Reserve" is like a "runner- up" and is only awarded points if, in the future, the Winners Bitch is found to be disqualified for some reason and the award is disallowed. During the Best of Breed competition, which is held after all class dogs (male and female) of that breed have been judged, the Winners Bitch and Winners Dog compete with each other for "Best of Winners." They may *also* be awarded Best of Breed or Best of Opposite Sex to BOB against the other, already finished champions in the BOB competition.

Winners Dog

Same as above, but for males. Substitute "Dog" for "Bitch" where appropriate.


For details about what these terms and titles mean, check for definition above.
  • AI-Artificial Insemination
  • AKC - American Kennel Club
  • ABC - American Boxer Club
  • Am/Can-American and Canadian
  • BBE-Bred By Exhibitor
  • BCC - Boxer Club of Canada
  • BCSWO-Boxer Club of South Western Ontario
  • BIS-Best In Show
  • BISS-Best In Specialty Sweepstakes (NOT Best In Specialty Show which is actually a "Specialty BOB")
  • BJH-Best Junior Handler - (See Junior Handling above)
  • BOH-Breeder, Owner, Handler
  • BOS-Best of Opposite Sex to Best of Breed
  • BW-Best of Winners (see Winners Bitch above)
  • CD-Companion Dog (AKC/CKC obedience title from the Novice A/B class)
  • CDX-Companion Dog Excellent (AKC/CKC obedience title from the Open A/B class)
  • CERF-Canine Eye Registry Foundation (A group of board certified Veterinary Ophthalmologists who maintain a registry of purebred dogs that the ACVO Diplomats (members) examine and have found to be unaffected by major heritable eye disease. CERF also maintains a research data base which consists of information that is generated by all examinations done by ACVO Diplomats. Reports generated from this resource help breeders and ophthalmologists identify trends in eye disease and breed susceptibility. CERF is dedicated to educating the public on matters involving canine eye disease. CERF provides a variety of reports, the CERF newsletter and other eye disease materials to help educate the owner/breeder on heritable eye disease questions, healthy breeding stock, and breed- specific eye problems)
  • CGC-Canine Good Citizen (AKC certificate (not an official title) indicating that the dog has successfully participated in AKC's CGC test-a casual set of exercises testing the dog's skills and basic obedience)
  • CH - Champion of Record (CKC/AKC title awarded to dogs who have been awarded at least 10/15 points, including two majors in the breed ring, where their conformation to the written standard of excellence for their breed is judged. See "Champion" definition above)
  • FDX-Flyball Dog Excellent title award to a dog that competes in flyball and earns 100 points.
  • NA-Novice Agility (AKC title awarded to dogs who completes 3 legs in AKC novice agility.
  • NAC - Novice Agility certificate earned by a dog who completes 3 legs in NADAC novice agility.
  • NOBC-Northern Ontario Boxer Club
  • OA-Open Agility certificate earned by a dog who completes 3 legs in AKC open agility.
  • OFA - Orthopedic Foundation for Animals - A research, diagnostic, and registration organization of veterinary orthopedists whose mission is to organize, collate and disseminate information concerning orthopedic and genetic disease of animals. To advise, encourage control and establish programs to lower the incidence of orthopedic and genetic diseases. To encourage and finance researches in orthopedic and genetic disease in animals. The OFA is a diagnostic service and registry for:
    • Hip Dysplasia-canine and feline
    • Elbow Dysplasia
    • Patellar Luxation
    • Craniomandibular osteopathy
    • Copper Toxicosis-Bedlington Terriers
    • Cardiac Registry
    • Thyroid Registry
    • Von Willebrand's Disease-Shetland Sheepdog, Doberman Pinscher, Scottish Terriers
    • Phosphofructokinase Deficiency-Cocker Spaniel, English Springer Spaniel
    • Progressive Retinal Atrophy-Irish Setter
    • Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency-Basenji

  • PHA-Professional Handlers' Association
  • SAS-Subaeortal Arterial Stenosis a serious genetic disorder of the cardiac system, causing heart murmurs.
  • SHDCH-Scent Hurdle Dog Champion (CKC certificate awarded to a dog that competes succesfully in Scent Hurdle Dog Racing)
  • TD-Tracking Dog (CKC/AKC title awarded to dogs who have qualified in this first level of Tracking Test)
  • TDX-Tracking Dog Excellent (CKC/AKC title awarded to dogs who have qualified in this highest level of Tracking Test)
  • WB-Winners Bitch (see definition above in terminology section)
  • WD-Winners Dog (see definition above in terminology section)


  • To find a responsible breeder, go to a dog show or access the AKC Breeder Referral page under Breeds at: http://www.akc.org/breeds/complete_breed_list.cfm. The breeder referral officer for the parent club is the best contact. Local all-breed kennel clubs in your neighborhood are also a good option to find reputable breeders. Find an AKC club in your area by using this directory: http://www.akc.org/clubs/search/index.cfm
  • Don't be put off if a breeder isn't immediately responsive. Hobby breeders often have full-time jobs and they don't always have available puppies. Be selective. Find a breeder who is knowledgeable and make sure you're comfortable with them.
  • Visit the breeder's home or kennel and ask to see at least one of the puppy's parents. Get an idea of what the future holds for your dog in terms of temperament and appearance.
  • Observe the premises. Is the house/kennel clean? Odor-free? Dogs and puppies should be clean, well fed, lively and friendly. Look for signs of malnutrition such as protruding rib cages or illness such as runny nose/eyes, coughing, lethargy and skin sores.
  • Pay attention to how the dogs and puppies interact with their breeder. Does the breeder appear to genuinely care for the puppies and their adult dogs? Both dogs and puppies should not shy away from the breeder and should be outgoing with strangers.
  • Find out about the health of your puppy and its parents. Breeders should be honest about the breed's strengths and weaknesses and knowledgeable about the genetic diseases that can affect their breed - including what's being done to avoid them. Breeders should be willing to share proof of health screenings such as OFA and CERF certificates with potential buyers.
  • Establish a good rapport with the breeder. He/she will be an excellent resource and breed mentor for you throughout the life of your puppy. You should be encouraged to call the breeder if your dog has a crisis at any stage of its life.
  • A responsible breeder may ask you to sign a contract indicating that if specified conditions of care are not met or you become unable to keep the puppy, he/she will reclaim it.
  • Don't expect to bring home the puppy until its eight to 12 weeks of age. Puppies need ample time to mature and socialize with its mother and littermates.
  • Breeders should be willing to answer any questions you have and should ask many of you as well. Breeders will want to make sure their puppies are going to good homes, with people who know what to expect and have made all the necessary preparations.
  • Don't leave the premises without the appropriate documentation of the dog's pedigree, a.k.a. "papers." The words "American Kennel Club" as well as the AKC logo should be clearly visible. You'll need to send in this application form to register your dog with the AKC. Be wary of a breeder who refuses/hesitates to give you papers, wants to charge you more for AKC papers, offers papers from a registry other than the AKC, or tells you he/she will mail them to you at a later date.
  • While the AKC does not have penal or regulatory authority, AKC conducts its own inspections of approximately 5,000 kennels each year. Breeders who have major kennel deficiencies may lose AKC privileges (ability to register dogs or compete in events). In some cases, fines will be imposed, AKC privileges may be suspended indefinitely and appropriate law enforcement authorities are contacted. If you would like to ensure that the breeder you are dealing with is in good standing with the AKC, contact AKC Customer Service at 919-233-9767 or info@akc.org.

More information is available at www.akc.org. Consumers should direct questions and concerns about AKC registration to AKC Customer Service at 919-233-9767, or e-mail info@akc.org.


Adopted November 30, 1996

The following principles are to be used as an educational guide and a tool for Brittany breeders for the purpose to develop more genetic and disease free dogs, while being ethical in all matters with the public and with our peers.

Objective and Purpose

To promote cooperation and friendship among the breeders and owners of Brittanys and to encourage higher standards in breeding, training and showing of Brittanys in the field and in the show ring; to discourage the breed from becoming split into groups of "field dogs" and "show dogs" and to strive to keep it forever a "dual dog".

Ethical breeders should:

  1. Comply with all ABC and AKC rules and regulations.
  2. Maintain a high standard of health, care, and cleanliness for dogs under one's care.
  3. Truthfully and realistically represent the Brittany being bred and/or sold in terms of quality, health, and genetic history. Refrain from breeding a bitch or using a stud until they are two (2) years old.
  4. Consult with your breeder and with knowledgeable, experienced members of the ABC, regional clubs, or local kennel clubs to broaden your understanding and knowledge of the history of the breed BEFORE breeding your Brittany.
  5. Breed only stock which are physically and temperamentally sound and in good health. No dog or bitch should be bred that is known to have serious inheritable defects or genetic diseases, such as:
    • canine hip/elbow dysplasia, primary epilepsy, a seizure disorder,
    • eye disorders - retinal atrophy, undescended testicles,
    • heart defects, extreme shyness, viciousness, other inheritable diseases or defects
  6. Not attempt breeding without the ability to distinguish between correct and incorrect physical attributes. This ability requires a careful study of the breed standard, principles of genetics, and a study of both the sire and the dam's pedigrees. Breeders should study and learn the good points within our dogs, looking to both field ability and conformation.
  7. Have their breeding stock OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals), GDC (Genetic Disease Control) or PennHip certification numbers for hips on, at least, both the sire and the dam; preferably for three (3) generations on both sides of the pedigree. In addition, other tests (brucellosis, eyes, elbows, and other unspecified tests) should be declared in agreement between owners of the sire and the dam prior to breeding.
  8. Refuse to sell to commercial wholesalers, retail brokers, or research laboratories.
  9. Have tails docked and dew claws removed soon after birth. Prior to the sale of the puppies, initial shots for known infectious diseases should be given and worming administered. A buyer should be supplied with a four- (4) generation pedigree, registration certificate, information on all veterinary care, and instructions for the care, feeding, and training of the Brittany.
  10. Remember your responsibility, as a breeder does not end with the sale of the puppy. A breeder should have contact with the buyer of a pup throughout the life of the dog. This information will enhance breeding knowledge and improve the foundation for a good long-term breeding program. This will also help your regional club to grow with new members and possible participants and workers.
  11. Use spay/neuter agreements and/or consider limited registration if it is known or believed to manifest hereditary defects detrimental to the breed. THE LONG TERM INTEREST OF THE BRITTANY SHOULD BE THE GOAL OF EVERY BREEDER.
  12. Consider DNA finger printing for all dogs in your breeding programs.

Responsible Breeding

The following is the standard of excellence in breeding that Rescue endorses:


...have made a wholehearted commitment to the well-being and improvement of their breed of dogs. They make the health and temperament of their dogs their first priority in breeding.

...have studied and researched their breed and know, intimately, its history and Standard, its strong points and drawbacks. They make working ability of their breed a top priority in breeding, and do not breed any dog that has not been proven to have good to excellent working ability.

...continually strive to learn more about their breed and to get to know many different bloodlines in an effort to improve their own.

...spend time, effort, and money researching and proving the qualities and health of their potential breeding stock. Those that do not prove out are not bred. Dogs are not bred until they have proven their worthiness in health, working ability, and structure (this means at least two years old, when the dog is fully mature and eligible for all health clearances).

...consider their dogs' health and well-being above all else. They do not perpetuate genetic defects OF ANY KIND; all of their potential breeding stock is proven and, if possible, certified clear of defects such as hip dysplasia, epilepsy, and hereditary eye and heart disorders.

...plan a litter only with the goal of puppies better than the parents, in an effort to improve what they have. Responsible breeders have a waiting list of potential buyers before they ever breed a litter.

...honestly and objectively evaluate their litters, and have others they respect do the same for them. They make every effort to match puppy to buyer in temperament, attitude and energy level as well as physical qualities.

...sell only to responsible, loving homes. While some exceptional pups may be saved for special competition homes, the responsible breeder realizes that not every puppy in ever litter is "competition quality" and welcomes responsible pet homes.

...sell their non-competition stock on Limited Registration backed up by a spay/neuter agreement, in order to discourage breeding of anything but the few exceptional puppies in their litters.

...assume responsibility for the lives they create, carefully screening buyers, helping find new homes, making a comfortable life for their older, retired dogs, and, yes, being able to make the decision to euthanize when a dog with a serious defect has no chance for a quality life.

...do not have so many dogs that they have little time for individual attention, play, training, and upkeep of grooming. They place any dogs that need more work or attention than they can give.

...build a good reputation slowly based on dedication and consistent quality, not on volume, advertising, or from haphazard breeding to make or break records or to satisfy their ego.

...go further and assume some responsibility for the problems of their breed as a whole. They are active in an organization for the breed, they continue to read about new developments, and they work to help reduce the number of their breed that are carelessly bred, ill cared for, and discarded.

...can look at a bigger picture than wins or puppy sales, keeping in mind that the dogs' well-being is what is most important - and contributing in some way to the betterment of dogs as a whole.

If you would like to join the ranks of responsible breeders, please take the first step by reading "Things to Think About Before Breeding Your Dog" If you can't or won't take the time to breed responsibly, please don't breed at all.

From Rescue

Glossary Of Dog Show Lingo


Almond eye--eye shape in which the tissue surrounding the eye is elongated
Amble--a relaxed, easy trot in between the walk and the show ring gait
Angulation--the angles formed at the meeting joint of two bones
Anterior--the portion carried foremst in normal locomotion
Apple head--a domed or rounded topskull
Apron--the longer fur and the chest and lower neck


Balance--term used to describe the similar characteristics of the dog's
Bandy leg--a leg that bends outward in an arch
Barrel chested--describes overly-sprung ribs--a very rounded rib cage
Basewide--wide footfall in gaiting
Bat ear--an erect/prick ear with a broad base and rounded top
Beard--long hair on the underjaw
Beefy--over developement of the hindquarter muscling
Belton--a color pattern seen in several breeds (ie English setters)
Bitchy--usually used to define an overly-refined male
Bite--the position of the jaws and all teeth when the mouth is closed
Blanket--the coloring on the back and upper sides of the dog between the neck and the tail
Blocky--sqaurish in body
Bloom--the sheen of a healthy coat
Bodied up--mature looking, well-developed, lacking puppyish conformational characteristic
Bone--pertaining to the substance and girth of the dog's bones, usually refering to leg bones
Bossy--overdeveloped shoulder muscles (equivilent of beefy, only in the front)
Brindle--another coloration pattern, broken tiger striped
Brisket--thoraxic area (inc. chest, rib cage)
Broken coat--a roungh but sparse wire coat
Brush--the featering on the underside of the tail
Bull neck--a thick, stout, well muscled neck
Butterfly nose--partially unpigmented nose leather (part black and part white)
Button ear--an ear type in which the base of the ears is erect, but the top tips neatly foreward


Camel back--general term used to describe an arched back
Carpal--largest bone in the pastern (wrist)
Cat foot--describes a tight-knuckled foot in which the toes are well arched
Caudal/coccygeal--the vertabrae that make up the tail
Cervical vertabrae--the vertabrae that make up the neck
Cheeky--too much fiil in the skull cavities, bulging sides of face
China eye--blue or clear eye coloration
Chiseling--pertaining to head structure, the outline and smoothness of the facial region
Chops--jowls, thick, heavy flesh on the lips and jaws
Clipping--a gaiting fault in which the rear feet actually knick the pads of the front feet when in a full trot
Close-coupled--a short loin in comparisson to other porportions
Coarse--lacking refinement
Cobby--very compact all over
Conformation--term describing the physical structure of the entire dog
Coupling--the loin
Cow-hocked--hocks bending inwards when in a natural stance
Crabbing--gaiting fault in which the front and rear legs do not line up when viewed from behind or in front
Crest--the arch on the top of the neck in some breeds
Cropped ear--an ear that had been surgically altered or trimmed to stand up erect
Croup--the region on the top of the dog between the hip bones, extending to were the tail is set on


Dentition--the number and placement of teeth in the mouth
Depth (of chest)--an indication of the volume of internal room for the heart, lungs, etc--referenced to the elbow
Dewclaws--extra toe or toes on the indide of the pasterns or hocks--commonly removed in most breeds
Dewlap--loose hanging skin under the neck
Dish face--a concave top of muzzle or slightly upturned nose
Divergent hocks--hocks that turn outward when at a natural stance
Dock tail--a tail that has been surgically shortened or removed
Double coat--a two layered type of coat, the first thick and plush, the outer one consisting of coarser gaurd hairs
Down face--pertaining to the planing of the head, the slope of the muzzle plane being steeper than that of the skull plane
Down in the pastern--weak pasterns
Drive--refering to the amount of thrust from the rear when gaiting
Drop ear--an ear folded or creases in at least one place
Dry neck--taut skin on the underline of the neck (opposite of wet neck)
Dudley nose--flesh colored nose leather


East-west--front structural fault in which the legs and feet point outwards, away from eachother
Elbowing out--the elbows outturned, away from body
Even bite--meeting of upper and lower inscisors with no overlap
Ewe neck--a concave neck line
Expression--genreral appearence of the look in the eye
Eyeteeth--upper canine teeth


Feathering--fringe of hair on the underside of the tail, brisket, and backs of legs
Femur--main bone in the rear legs
Fibula--one of the bones that make up the lower thigh
Fiddle front--elbows turned outward, pasterns turned inward, toes pointed outward
Flag--a long feathered tail, carried high
Flat croup--a croup with insufficiant slope or taper from the hip bones to the root of the tail
Flat sided--lacking proper spring of ribs
Flews--inner corners of the upper lips
Flewsy--too much flews
Flying ears--erect/prick ears on a breed that should not have prick ears
Flying trot--a very fast gait where all four feet are off the ground for a brief moment
French front--see "fiddle front"
Frill--see "apron"
Full dentition--refers to an adult dog with all its teeth in and fully developed
Furnishings--see "feathering"


Gait--the pattern of footfall--when used in a show ring setting, it describes the dog's movement at a trot
Gaskin--lower second thigh
Gay tail--a tail carried high and slightly curved over the back
Goose neck--a long tube-like neck (opposite of bull neck)
Goose stepping--a gaiting fault with an accentuated and seemingly careless lift in the forelegs
Grizzle--a mixture of three or more colors on one hair
Guard hairs--the coarse outer coat on a double coated breed


Hackles--hairs on the back and the back of the neck that the dog raises when alerted
Hackney gait--a fault in all but two AKC recognized breeds in which the front legs are lifted high with an arching wrist
Hard knuckled--a tight foot with prominent arches in each of the toes
Hare foot--an elongated foot with little arch in the toes
Harlequin--color pattern usually piebald (bi-color splashes)
Haw--the third eylid--membrane on the inner corner of the eye, seen in wet faced breeds
Height--measured from the ground to the point of the withers
Hock--the collection of tarses bones on the rear legs--the true heel
Hocking out--see "divergent hocks"
Hucklebones--top of hip bones
Humerus--bone of the upper arm


Incisors--the smaller row of teeth between the two canines; present on both upper and lower jaws


Jowls--flesh of the lips and jaws


Kiss marks--tan spots on the cheeks and over the eyes in some breeds
Kiss of Ala--a small snip of differing color on the center of the top of the skull
Knuckling over --a universal fault wher the carpal (wrist) bones flex forward under the weight of the dogs standing


Layback--term used to describe the dog's front or rear angulation
Layon--the angle of the shoulder blade from the nearest vertical axis
Leather--outer flap of the ear
Level bite--see "even bite"
Level gait--no rise or fall of the withers or topline when at a standard show ring gait
Liver--a color; deep brown
Loaded--pertaining to overdevelopement of certain groups of muscles
Loin--sides of the dog in the lumbar vertabrae region
Loose front--loose attachment of muscles to the shoulder, producing a gait in which the front is slung all about
Lumbar vertabrae--the vertabrae between thoracic (over ribs) and coccygeal (tail)
Lumber--an akward, uncoordinated looking gait


Mandible--lower jaw bone
Manubrium--frontal area of the chest
Mask--dark shading on the face
Merle--color pattern; dark patching upon a lighter background, as seen in some breeds like Austrailian Shepherds
Metatarsus--smaller bone that makes up the hock
Milk teeth--puppy teeth
Mismark--a specimen with highly undesirable coloring or markings for its breed
Moving close--when viewed from the rear or front, the legs move toward the centerline of the body while gaiting
Moving straight--describes a dog with little reach and drive in gaiting
Muzzle--foreface; head in front of the eyes



Oblique eyes--outer corner of eyes placed higher than inner corners
Occiput--point of the skull bone, back of head
Otter tail--thick rooted, tapering tail with parted hair on the underside
Out at elbows--elbows turn outward, away from body, at a natural stance
Overdone--refers to a dog whose angulation is extreme; too much
Overhang--a heavilly pronounced brow
Overreaching--a gaiting fault in which the rear legs must reach to one side or another to avoid clipping
Overshot--an overbite; upper inscissors project beyond the lower ones


Padding--a gaiting fault in which the front feet flip up and outward to avoid clippin with the rear
Paddling--caused by and east-west or in at the elbows front; front feet are slung stiflfy outwards when gaiting
Pads--the thick leathery projections on the sould of the feet
Paper foot--an overly falt foot with thin pads and little, if any arch to the toes
Peak--see "occiput"
Parti--varigated patches of two or more colors
Pastern--region of the front leg between the carpus and the foot (the wrist)
Pelvis--hip bones
Penciling--thin lines of black between otherwise tan colored tows in some breeds
Pigeon toed--feet (front or rear) pointing inwards, towards eachother
Pig mouth--see "overshot"
Pincer bit--see "even bite"
Planes--refering to the head, the plane of the muzzle and the plane of the topskull
Planing--the comparisson of the angles of the two planes of the head
Plume--see "feathering"
Poke--neck carried low and outwards when gaiting
Popping hock--gaiting fault describing an accentuated lift of the hock portion just after full extension of the rear
Pounding--gaiting fault; front stride is shorter than the rear, front feet pound the ground in an ungainly manner
Prick ear--an erect or upright ear
Puppyish--immature in overall conformation (ie no spring of ribs, or loose front action--typical traits of puppies)



Racy--tall and of a lithe, slight build
Ragged--muscling appears rough and rageed, instead of smooth
Rangy--unporportionally tall, long, and of a lighter build than is desired
Rat tail--thick root covered in curly hair, tapering to a sharp point w/ little to no hair
Reach--descripes the length of forward stride taken by the forelegs when in motion
Refinement--pertaining to the amount of raciness
Resticted--a gaiting fault caused by underangulation where either the front or the rear appears painfully constricted
Ribbed up--a long rib cage
Ring tail--carried up and in a semi-circle over the croup
Roach back--a noticable arch ove the thoracic and lumbar regions
Rocking horse--refers to a dog who braces (or rock backwards) while in a stack rather than lean over its front
Rolling--a gait in which the rear seems to be syawing and ambling along
Roman nose--a down faced dog with the addition of a further sloping tip of nose plane
Rubber hocks--a gaiting fault in which the hocks flex and twist both ways to bear the weight of the rear
Rudder--another term for the tail
Ruff--the thick. lush hair growth around the neck in some breeds


Saber tail--tail carried in a semi-circle
Sable--color pattern; silver, gold, tawny, or grey hairs tipped in black
Sacrum--vertabrae of the pelvic girdle
Saddle--large black marking over the back
Scissors bite--a bite type; the outer surfaces of the lower incissors touches the inner surfaces of the upper incissors
Screw tail--a twisted, kinked tail
Self--one solid color
Semi-prick ear--ears carried erect with the tips leaning forward
Shelly--a shallow, narrow body lacking proper fill and spring of ribs as well as being fine boned
Sickle hocks--straight, restricted hock joints resulting in inability to full straighted hocks while gaiting
Sickle tail--carried out an in a semi-circle
Single tracking--all footprints falling upon a single, central line of travel while gaiting
Skully--a very broad topskull
Slab sides--flat, undersprung ribs
Slew foot--general term for feet turned outwards
Smooth coat--a very short, tight fitting and slick single layer coat
Snipy--a pointed muzzle lacking proper fill and underjaw
Splay foot--a flat foot with toes spread apart from eachother
Spring--refers to the amount of roundness to the rib cage
Spread--the distance between the front legs
Standoff coat--a heavy, somewhat long coat that stands out from the body, rather than lying flat
Steep--used to denote incorrect angles
Steep croup--a croup which makes a dramatic slope from the hip bones to the root of the tail
Stern--another term for the tail
Stilted--a gaiting style; very choppy with lots of up and down bounce due to straight angulation
Stop--the indentation between the eyes; the step up from the muzzle plane to the skull plane
Straight front--too little angulation in the front
Straight in the pastern--not enough give in the pastern area when in a natural stance
Substance--pertaining the the amount of bone
Sway back--a noticably concave topline


Thoracic vertabrae--the vertabrae that make up the spine over the rib cage area
Throaty--excess of loose skin under the neck
Thumb marks--black splotches on the backs of the pasterns
Tibia--the smaller of the two major bones in the hock Tied at the elbows--see "paddling"
Topline--the horizontal made by the top of the withers through the bottom of the croup
Tuck up--the shallower depth of body beneath the loin area
Tulip ear--carried erest with only the edges turning forward and in
Twisting hocks--see "rubber hocks"
Type--the characteristic physical qualities that distinguish one breed from another
Typey--a specimen with outstanding breed type


Ulna--the smaller of two major bones in the forearm
Underline--the contour of the underside of the brisket and the abdominal floor
Undershot--an underbite, opposite of overshot
Unsound--a dog with one or more severe conformational or health faults
that would render it incapable of working


Varminty--a keen and piercing expression


Walleye--a bluish eye
Webbed--a thin but solid membrane between all toes
Weedy--rangy and with insufficient amount of bone
Well let down--having short hocks
Wet neck--see "throaty"
Wheel back--see "roach back"
Whip tail--a long, straight, evenly tapering, smooth coated tail
Winging--a gaiting fault in which one or both front limbs twist outward
Wirehair--a coat of hard, crisp, somewhat kinked hairs
Withers--the region between the neck and the back
Wry mouth--a cross bite where the upper and lower jaws do not line up





AKC--American Kennel Club
UKC--United Kennel Club
CKC--Canadian Kennel Club
ARBA--American Rare Breed Assoc.
ASFA--American Sighthound Field Assoc.
NADAC--North American Dog Agility Council
USDAA--United States Dog Agility Assoc.


BIS--Best in Show winning
SBIS or BISS--Best in Specialty winning
AOM--Award of Merit winning
BISweeps--Best in Sweepstakes
SBISweeps--Best in Specialty Sweepstakes
BIF--Best in Field winning
HIT--High in Trial winning
BJS or BJH--Best Junior Showman/Handler winning


Dog Show Lingo

Dog--a male canine
Bitch--a female canine
Put up--placed in a class or better
Put down--not put up for any award
Ringer--a substitute for; a dog closely resembling another dog
Pointed--has earned at least one point towards AKC bench or field championship
Major pointed--has earned at least one major toward AKC bench or field championship
Cluster--a group of consecutive shows held at the same show site
Circuit--a convenient string of consecutive shows at different locations, not far apart
Hander's show/Handler draw--a show that draws large numbers of professional handlers
Specialty--a show for one breed only, usually offering more classes and prizes
Supported Entry--a show where large numbers of the supported breed will be shown, but not a specialty
Bench show--a show where the exhibits (the dogs) must be on display all day
National--the specialty put on by the parent club, usually the largest
Parent Club--the national club for the breed in the USA
Sire--male parent
Dam--female parent
Stud dog--a male dog used for breeding purposes
Brood bitch--a bitch used for breeding purposes
Foundation Bitch--a bitch used for starting a line of one's own
Line--refers to a distinctive "family" of dogs in specified breed; each breeder has his/her own distinct "line"
Inbreeding--the breeding of immediately related specimens (i.e. brother x sister)
Linebreeding--the breeding of closely related dogs, but not close enough to be considered inbreeding
Outcrossing--the breeding of unrelated specimens; breeding to a dog or bitch from another line

In the Show Ring

Stack--a show dog's standing pose
Free Stack--a show dog's natural pose w/out being touched by the handler
Gait--refering to the extended trot of a dog in the show ring
Bait--food, treats, or toys used to get a dog's attention, expression, or free stack in the ring
Baiting--the use of bait
Six to Nine--refers to the dog show class for puppies six months or over and under nine months
Nine to Twelve--same as above, only between nine and twelve months
Twelve to Eighteen--see above
Open--usually the largest and most competitive class (note; I said usually) for all dogs
Special--refering to a champion of recorder who is still being shown and campaigned
'Breed--having won the Best of Breed or Variety award: EX: "Fido took the breed on Sunday"
'Opposite--having won the Best of Opposite Sex award, same context as above Winners--having taken (won) Winners Dog or Winners Bitch
'Reserve--having taken Reserve Winners Dog or Bitch
Making the cut/Getting pulled--being selected out of a larger group for further examination by the judge
P.I.G.--pulled in Group; a dog that mad the cut in the group ring
The Cut--the handful of dogs that the judge wishes to further consider for placements; those that don't make the cut are typically dismissed.


CD after name Companion Dog first obedience title, earned in the novice class
CDX aftername Companion Dog Excellent second title, open class
UD after name Utility Dog third title, utility class
UDX after name Utility Dog Excellent higher than both UD and CDX, includes both classes
OTCH before name Obedience Trial Champion highest obedience honor, very difficult to achieve


CH. before name Champion of Record the dog had beaten enough other members of its breed to be awarded the championship certificate


DC Dual Champion before name combination of conformation CH and a working championship (ie FC or OTCH)
TC Triple Champion before name A dog with a CH, FC, and OTCH.


NA after name Novice Agility Dog earned in Novice Standard titling
OA after name Open Agility Dog earned in Open Standard titling
EA after name Excellent Agility Dog earned in Excellent Standard titling (highest class)
NAJ after name Novice Jumpers With Weaves earned in Novice gaming
OAJ after name Open Jumpers With Weaves earned in open gaming
EAJ after name Excellent Jumpers With Weaves earned in excellent gaming


TD after name Tracking Dog passed a standard tracking test after pre-certifying
TDX after name Tracking Dog Excellent passed a tacking excellent test


UDT Dog has earned both a TD and a UD
UDTX Dog has earned both a TDX and a UDX


JC after name Junior Courser passed two instinct tests
SC after name Senior Courser earned by four clean runs
MC (MC2, MC3, etc.) after name Master Courser each Master Courser is earned by 25 clean runs
FC before name Field Champion dog has defeated enough other running hounds to be awarded this certificate


FCH after name ASFA Field Champion
LCM after name Lure Courser of Merit
LCM2, LCM3, etc., etc.....


(all go after the name)
NAC Novice Agility Certificate
OAC Open Agility Certificate
EAC Elite Agility Certificate
NJC Novice Jumpers Certificate
OJC Open Jumpers Certificate
EJC Elite Jumpers Certificate
NGC Novice Gamblers Certificate
OJC Open Gamblers Certificate
EJC Elite Gamblers Certificate
NATCH NADAC Agility Trial Champion

Other Brittany Resources

Brittany e-mail lists:

Brittany-L: an e-mail list for Brittany fanciers and competitors

Dual Brittanys: an e-mail list for Brittany fanciers interested in the "Dual Concept" (field and show)

Brittany Issues: To discuss issues of health, training, feeding, living with Brittanys and all the other activities our Britts get us into

American Brittany Connection: Every one is welcome. Topics include field trialing, show and just pets

Brittany Brigade: If you love Brittanys, this is the place to be! This list is dedicated to the exchange of ideas, help and information -all about Brittanys!

French Brittany: Epanguel Breton, an international group. This club is for those that seek information on the French Brittany or Epanguel Breton as it is known in most every other country

Other Yahoo Brittany Groups

8 Helpful Tips for Finding Your Lost Dog

Are you searching for your lost dog and wondering what to do?

We know the feeling: that heart-breaking, gut-wrenching moment when you realize your canine best friend has escaped and you have no idea where they are. It is a very overwhelming moment for a pet parent, but don’t panic – we are here to help.

While you should always take steps to raise local awareness regardless of your lost pet’s species (and you should read that article first if you have not already), effective boots-on-the-ground search measures for a lost dog differ from those for a lost cat or other type of missing pet.

Thanks to tips from our Rescue Squad members, we’ve provided a list of the most immediate steps to take as soon as possible in a missing dog scenario.

Step 1: Check for your lost dog inside your home.

It may be the most obvious place to start, but your pups may sometimes hide in unexpected places as they engage in curious play or if they become frightened. Be sure to check the dark, small places your dog may seek out for a hiding spot, such as in or around appliances, under beds, in closets, behind other bulky furniture, etc.

Dog parents should also search around areas located near dryer vents, especially when the vent is on as a heat source. The ASPCA recommends calling for your dog while shaking their food dish or a treat dish to potentially help coax them out of their hiding, play or napping place.

Step 2: Recruit a lost dog search party.

After you have conducted a thorough search of your home for your missing fur baby, it’s important to begin the on-the-ground search efforts as soon as possible. Raising awareness about your lost pup in the first few hours after you realize she is missing will greatly increase your odds of a happy reunion.

In the critical first days of a missing dog scenario, there are a multitude of tasks and search efforts that need to be done to help bring your furry loved one home, so getting help from others is key. Call on the friends or family who you trust to assist in your search efforts and begin to build your search party.

Your search party can help in many ways, including physically searching locations near where your pup got out, printing and distributing lost dog flyers around the neighborhood and nearby local businesses, and staking out areas where your pup is likely to visit or return to (such as the home when you are out searching).

Step 3: Notify neighbors and community members.

Contact members of your neighborhood, community (e.g. mail men, construction workers, municipal workers who are stationed outside) and the staff of local businesses in highly trafficked areas to keep an eye out and/or confirm any potential sightings of your pup.

Plan to have a thorough description of your dog ready to share and always be sure to provide your up-to-date contact information should anyone need to reach you after spotting or coming into contact with your fur baby.

Bringing lost dog flyers as leave behinds will make sure that the people you talk to are equipped with all the necessary information to aid in your reunion.

Step 4: Focus your search near your lost dog’s last known location.

While dogs are more likely than cats to have traveled further from the home, the search should still begin close to the last known location.

You can start by canvassing the neighborhood on foot, loudly (but as calmly as possible) calling for your dog – remember: he or she knows and respond to your voice!

Dogs typically travel between 1-3 miles of the escape point in the first 24 hours, so limit your search within that range for the initial search effort. You may consider expanding your search area as time passes to accommodate for your dog’s potentially widened travel range.

Schedule some of the heavier searches during times when your neighborhood or communities are quieter (early morning, evening or during the day when folks are at work) so that your pup can better hear your calls.

Step 5: Bring a furry buddy.

If your dog has a buddy (either a second pet or a consistent walk/play partner), you may also want to bring that animal along for part of the search effort.

The presence of a friendly furry friend may help coax your pup from a hiding place.

Step 6: Use the power of scent to attract your lost dog.

You can attempt to lure your good home by appealing to their keen sense of smell… and “always on” appetites.

Set up a feeding station that you can monitor during the day or with a wildlife camera filled with puppy’s favorite treats or strong-smelling meats. The feeding station should be placed in a quiet, safe place ideally in the back of your home.

You may also consider placing your dog’s favorite blanket/bedding or a familiar piece of clothing with your scent on it outside of the house to help guide your beloved tracker back home.

Remember: A dog’s nose is far more powerful than yours. Using this to your advantage can be the key to your happy reunion.

Step 7: Don’t give up!

Hopefully, all of these tips will lead to a speedy reunion with your lost dog – but should the search require more time, don’t lose hope.

It’s likely that your lost dog is scared and hiding somewhere nearby, or has been picked up by a Good Samaritan who is searching for the dog’s family.

So keep up the search! Don't get discouraged.

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